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Hydrogeology is the study of the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust. Before embarking on a borehole project we conduct a comprehensive hydrogeological survey and come up with a technical site investigations report for the groundwater. This report enables us to advice the client on:

  • Groundwater potential of the area under consideration
  • Safety of water for drinking and other purposes
  • The method of ground water extraction
  • Approximate costs
  • Optimum locations where the proposed borehole can be sunk

At W4W, we pride ourselves in having qualified and registered Geophysists and Hydrogeologists that guide our clients through the project in a simple, yet professional manner. Our staff are always at hand to help the client understand a survey’s technical considerations such as:

  • Assessment of availability of groundwater
  • Borehole specific capacities
  • Hydraulic conductivity and groundwater flux
  • Recharge/discharge considerations
  • Analysis of reserve and groundwater level evolution
  • Geophysics
  • Quality of groundwater throughout
  • Impacts of the proposed drilling project on aquifer

All or hydrogeological surveys conform to Water Resources Authority (WRA) requirements and standards. Water Resources Authority (WRA) is a state corporation which acts as an agent of the Kenya Government responsible for regulating the management and use of water resources. A hydrogeological survey includes:

  • Field reconnaissance and field visit
  • Detailed desk study. They included review of existing information, maps, and reports in the vicinity of the project area, surrounding borehole data analyses etc.
  • Analysis of all gathered information including field data, geological logs of surrounding boreholes, groundwater water level in the boreholes and water quality parameters.
  • Data analyses and reporting
  • Conclusions and recommendations


We are in a position to assist our clients and partners obtain statutory permits that they require prior to drilling a borehole. The permits include:

  • Water Resources Authority (WRA)
  • National Environment Management Authority (NEMA)
  • County Permits


A borehole is a narrow shaft bored into the ground, either vertically or horizontally for different purposes, including the extraction of water from an aquifer. A borehole is an excellent way to access pure and natural underground water. Benefits of borehole water include:

  • If the ground water has accumulated from a natural water source such as a river or rain, then the borehole will provide clean, pure water free from impurities and contaminants and that contains minerals that could be useful to the body
  • Borehole water is available at all times and in sufficient qualities
  • In marginalized areas and under-served communities, borehole water saves people (especially women and children) from long, tiring, often dangerous journeys in search of water
  • In arid area, borehole water often saves lives by providing safe drinking water as well as improving on sanitation
  • Community boreholes can become a source of income through revenue generation from water kiosks
  • Boreholes water can be used for irrigation in agricultural projects, watering animals, maintaining gardens, parks, lawns and even construction projects

W4W specializes in “bush drilling” in remote and/or marginalized areas, but also undertakes urban projects for hotels, households, institutions and farms. We are equipped with drilling equipment that can drill up to a depth of 400M.


W4W offers maintenance for old drilled, abandoned and poorly productive boreholes. We recommend rehabilitation and cleaning of a water borehole under the following circumstances:

  • If you have had your borehole for over 3 years
  • When you move to a new location with a borehole, and you are not sure of the safety of the water
  • Occurrence of a natural disaster such as flooding and earthquakes
  • When there is depreciation of a borehole performance such as drastically reduced water yield, tanks take longer to fill or a drop in water pressure for irrigation
  • Significant increase in the iron level in the water which is easily seen by brown stains appearing on storage tanks and cisterns
  • When the pumping equipment keeps getting damaged without a reasonable explanation

Our borehole cleaning procedures are based on the fundamental approach of borehole development using both physical air jetting techniques and chemical injection to disperse the clays that conventionally clog on the screened areas. We use a three step approach to borehole cleaning and rehabilitation:
1. Assess the damage

  • Site visit and obtaining any available records of the drilling of the borehole, particularly concerning the materials used for lining the borehole, its overall depth
  • Check for possible contamination or pollution of the groundwater. In urban areas, damaged septic tanks, leaks in industrial installations and fractured sewers may all be sources of contamination or pollution seeping into the ground.
  • Assess the type and extent of damage to the top of the well. This includes damage to the pump, its connection to the riser pipe and borehole casing, the sanitary seal and the well apron.
  • Remove the pump and riser pipe from the borehole. Check for damage or blockage with silt.
  • Check the water level in the borehole. A significant lowering of the water level may require the riser pipe to be extended or, in the worst case, the abandonment of the borehole.
  • Check for damage to the borehole casing and screen
  • Estimate the amount of silt and debris in the borehole
  • Dismantle the pump and riser pipe to check for damage and worn parts
  • Estimate resources needed for repairs (personnel, equipment, time and materials)

2. Repair the borehole and pump

  • Flush the sediment from the borehole using a high pressure industrial compressor
  • Check the top of the borehole casing for damage
  • Repair any damage to the pump and riser pipe and replace worn parts
  • Re-assemble the pump and reinstall the borehole components and ensure that he pump is working, the water produced is clear of silt and the flow rate is acceptable
  • Repair the clay sanitary seal at the top of the borehole and the drainage apron around the borehole to prevent surface contamination of the groundwater

3. Disinfect and recommission the borehole and pump
Following rehabilitation, the borehole and all components must be disinfected by chlorination to ensure a clean water supply. Operate the pump for about an hour to remove any groundwater contamination caused by damage or the jetting process.


We offer a variety of pumps and all necessary accessories required for installation. This has been made possible due to the many business partners we have acquired along the way. It is therefore possible for us to give a variety of options and allow the clients choice.
Borehole equipment includes:

  • Submersible borehole water pumps
  • Manual Hand pumps
  • Solar powered pumps
  • Solar panels and other solar power accessories
  • Pipe, valves and fittings

W4W has excellent relationships with various local and international manufacturers of high quality products. These products are covered by international certificates such as ISO and KEBS in addition to being covered by applicable warranties.


Test pumping of boreholes is normally carried out to meet two main objectives:

  • To establish borehole potential. To estimate the sustainable yield and hydraulic performance of individual boreholes for water supplies.
  • To establish aquifer potential. To assess the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer.

It consists of pumping a well from a measured static water level (SWL) at a known or measured yield, and recording the rate and pattern by which the water level within the well changes.  Once a dynamic water level (DWL) is reached, rate of inflow to the well equals the rate of pumping. Today, it is a common practice to carry out a ‘step drawdown test’, in which the yield is increased stepwise. Each step is continued until hydraulic equilibrium is reached after which the yield is increased with 50 to 100%. Towards the end of the test, a water sample of two liters is collected for chemical analysis.
The duration of the test is 24 hours, with a further 8 hours for a recovery test (during which the rate of recovery to SWL I recorded). The results of the test enables the hydro geologist to calculate the best pumping rate, the installation depth, and the drawdown for a given discharge rate


Solar water pumping solutions allow vital water resources to be accessed from boreholes located in remote and marginalized areas. They are ideal since they don’t require electricity or fuel and run with minimum maintenance.

Solar powered submersible pumps are used for wells, boreholes, water transfer, cattle & livestock watering and irrigation. With the improvement of solar energy technology and recent decline in the price of solar panels, solar powered pumping systems are becoming more affordable and hence accessible to under-served populations.

There is also a natural relationship between the availability of solar power and the need for water. Solar pumps provide maximum water flow when it's needed most.

Most solar water pumping applications don't use batteries, the water is simply pumped when there is enough daylight. The water is often pumped into a large raised storage tank, enabling access to water whenever needed.


SolarRO MINI Series

  • For fresh and brackish water sources: production capacity 25–150 litres/h.
  • Drinking water from any sea, lake, river or borehole.
  • The only purification system that can run on solar power without batteries.
  • Compact, lightweight and mobile.
  • Easy and quick maintenance. No adjustments needed.

SolarRO MINI 50

Production capacity from lakes, rivers, ponds or floodwater 50 L/h and from 0.6% saline brackish water 25 L/h.

SolarRO MINI 150

Clean drinking water production from lakes, rivers, ponds or floodwater 150 L/h and 0.6% saline brackish water 60 L/h.

SolarRO PRO Series

  • Both for seawater and brackish water: production capacity 250–3500 litres/h.
  • Quality and materials for the most demanding and corrosive environments.
  • The only desalination system that runs on solar power without batteries.
  • Self-sufficient and affordable drinking water supply.
  • Operational costs reduced up to 90%. Low life-cycle costs.

SolarRO PRO 300

Clean drinking water production from lakes, rivers and boreholes 300 L/h and from 0.6% saline brackish water 190 L/h.

SolarRO PRO 700

Clean drinking water production from lakes, rivers and boreholes 660 L/h and from 0.6% saline brackish water 440 L/h.

SolarRO PRO 1500

Clean drinking water production from lakes, rivers and boreholes 1550 L/h and from 0.6% saline brackish water 1100 L/h.


We supply fabricated structural steel water storage tanks, PVC tanks on steel towers all which can be custom made to fit the design, capacity or cost requirement of the client. Our structural steel storage tanks are:

Long Lasting: Structural steel tanks are resistant to corrosion and can withstand extreme weather elements such as rain, sun and wind. They are also resistant to fire and UV rays.

Durable: Steel is more durable that other materials such as plastic, especially in areas with harsh weather conditions such as extreme heat which would cause cracking and hence leakage or contamination of stored water.

Customizable: Unlike other tanks such as mass produced plastic, steel storage tanks can be fabricated to any size, thickness and hoisted to any height depending on an individual client’s specification. They can also be painted or branded as required.

Low Cost: Steel tanks are long lasting and require very little maintenance. As a result, they give better value for money compared to tanks made from other materials.

Hygienic: Steel tanks do not crack or leak and hence are safe from contamination from surrounding environment. Other than that steel does not corrode or degrade into the water, so there is not risk of metal contamination.

Environmental Friendly: Steel can be recycled, unlike materials like plastic that are ultimately harmful to the environment.


W4W’s “Maji Tele” program is a viable alternative to bridge the water supply gap in under-served markets and help meet a basic social need sustainably


Water for the World (W4W)
Garden III, Ridgeways Lane (Off Garden Estate Road)
Email: info@w4wkenya.net
Tel:  +254 722 888 891
       +254 717 430 010

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